Болезни и лечение Симптомы
Здесь интересная статья о том, как создали бум из коралового кальция. К сожаленью, она на английском. Попробуйте воспользоваться бесплатными переводами через вебсайты.
С некоторыми моментами я не согласна, но в целом статья очень правдивая.
Be Wary of Coral Calcium and Robert Barefoot
Stephen Barrett, M.D.
"Coral calcium" is a dietary supplement said to be derived from
"remnants of living coral that have fallen from coral reefs, as a
result of wave
action or other natural processes." It is also said to be mined from
ocean beds at the base of the coral reefs in Okinawa, Japan [1:120].
put, "coral remnants" are limestone, which coral organisms originally
manufacture as a protective shell. Since coral reefs are protected by
calcium" is made by grinding up limestone that no longer contains
Limestone has no unique health properties. It is merely calcium
carbonate, with some magnesium and trace amounts of many other
Limestone fertilizer, available at garden centers, costs as little as
for an 80-pound bag. (Note: Limestone fertilizer is not suitable for
use as calcium supplement. I mention it only to illustrate how
the raw ingredients can be.) For people who need to consume extra
purified calcium carbonate pills are safer and far less expensive
calcium." But Robert R. Barefoot, of Wickenburg, Arizona, would like
you to believe that limestone obtained from Okinawa provides "the
secret of health and youth" and can cure cancer. His ideas have been
promoted through books, lectures, his Web site, an audiotape, two 30-
minute infomercials , interviews, and thousands of Web sites that
"coral calcium" products. Although his sales pitch is preposterous,
gained a wide audience. I have received more than 300 e-mail
stimulated by his infomercial, which is more than I have received
about any other
product. His book, The Calcium Factor , first published in 1992,
undergone five editions and on January 31, 2003 enjoyed an Amazon
rank of #412, which is quite high. On the same day, his Death By Diet
originally published in 1996 and now in its fourth edition, was ranked
#1790; and his other book, Barefoot on Coral Calcium , was ranked
Searching Google for "Robert Barefoot" yielded more than 31,000 hits,
And searching for "coral calcium" found more than 80,000! In January
February, Barefoot`s "A Closer Look" infomercial was among the most
frequently shown infomercials and was the most frequent one
with a dietary supplement. In March 2003, a newer infomercial version
on the frequency list and a Google Search for "coral calcium" topped
120,000. Barefoot`s Cure America Web site listed his email address as
firstname.lastname@example.org, which, considering his probable sales
volume is probably an apt description. In 2002, the U.S. Federal
Commission stopped the broadcasting of his infomercials but coral
products are still widely marketed.
Here is a sampling of Barefoot`s claims followed by my comments in
Red type. Except as noted, all are from his infomercial "A Closer
a.. "Over 200 degenerative diseases are caused by calcium
deficiency. That includes cancer, heart disease, diabetes,
Alzheimer`s, you name it."
These diseases are caused by acidosis -- acidification of the body --
of minerals, especially calcium. When you start taking coral calcium,
your body alkalizes and drives out the acid [5 ].
All of these statements are incorrect. Calcium deficiency can weaken
bones (osteoporosis), but it does not make the body more acidic or
cause a wide range of diseases. The idea that calcium supplements (or
dietary strategies) can change the
acidity of the body is nonsense. The only acid level that diet or
can modify is the degree of acidity (pH) of the urine .
b.. "There are seven major cultures in the world that never, ever,
ever get sick. They never get cancer, they never get heart disease,
never get diabetes. They have no doctors. These people live 30, 40
longer, and they don`t grow old. What`s the common denominator? One
times the RDA of everything. So they`re taking 100 times the RDA.
so much, they get all they need and the body passes what it doesn`t
This statement is preposterous. There is no culture in which nobody
gets sick. And nobody ingests 100 times the Recommended Dietary
of everything. That amount of iron, for example, would probably be
within a few days.
c.. "The body can cure itself of all disease if given the nutrients
it needs." [1:142]
Ninety percent of the disease in America can be wiped
out if people get on appropriate nutrients.
Not true. Although nutritional strategies can help prevent and
manage some diseases (most notably cardiovascular diseases), they are
rarely curative. Moreover, the
vast majority of diseases have little or nothing to do with nutrient
levels; and few diseases are treatable by administering dietary
d.. Ninety-eight percent of people over age 60 are "totally calcium-
deficient." That`s why we have all this trouble with heart disease,
lupus, and Parkinson`s disease. Barefoot doesn`t say what "totally
deficient" means or where he gets this figure. However, U.S.
government surveys indicate that at least half the people in this age
getting at least 900 mg per day, which would hardly make
Calcium`s relevance to high blood pressure may play a small role
In theincidence of heart disease, but lupus and Parkinson`s disease
caused by calcium deficiency. Keep in mind that low calcium intake
little impact on calcium blood levels. Most of the body`s calcium is
in the bones, which can release whatever amounts are needed to
adequate blood levels. Over a period of many years, this can produce
osteoporosis, but it has little or no effect on other disease
e.. Testing the pH level of the saliva is the most reliable test of
calcium deficiency and can also tell the state of a person`s health.
Testing saliva has no practical value in evaluating general health.
is usually similar to blood pH, which the body keeps within a narrow
range. When the saliva flow is high, the pH is usually about 7.4 (7
neutral, low numbers are acid, and higher numbers are alkaline).
does not affect the pH of saliva. The most common cause of low (acid)
pH is the presence in the mouth of bacteria that cause cavities. In
diseases (such as diabetic acidosis) in which blood pH is dangerously
low, the level
is determined by blood pH testing and calcium pills have no relevance
f.People should not be concerned about their cholesterol levels
because abnormal levels are not the cause of heart disease. The real
is calcium deficiency. Cholesterol problems will correct themselves
your minerals are balanced. (In another TV interview, Barefoot even
"Everyone blames cholesterol, but it absolutely has nothing to do
with heart disease."
Hundreds of scientific studies support the medical
Belief that cholesterol is a major factor in cardiovascular disease.
not aware of any relationship between abnormal cholesterol levels and
deficiency; and Barefoot cites no evidence that supports what he
g.. The two most important things people can do to be healthier,
live longer, and disease-free are to take coral calcium and get a
of two hours of sunlight on their face every day -- without
Barefoot presents no data to back either of these claims. Even worse,
hours a day of unprotected sun exposure -- particularly in warm
climates -- would
place the person at high risk of getting skin cancer.
h.. Experts quoted in the Journal of the American Medical
Association say that calcium can prevent and reverse colon cancer.
cite the article, but I searched the journal site for "calcium"
cancer" and found it. In 1998, researchers at the Strang Cancer
Center and another prominent medical institution reported that
the daily intake of calcium by up to 1,200 mg via low-fat dairy food
subjects at risk for colonic cancer reduced growth characteristics
thought to be
associated with the development of cancer .
The study indicates that increased attention to calcium may find a
role in cancer prevention, but the study had nothing to do with
either calcium supplements or the
"reversal" of an established cancer.
i.. Barefoot claims to have seen "millions" of testimonials, had a
thousand people tell him how they cured their cancer, and witnessed
with multiple sclerosis "get out of wheelchairs just by getting on
the coral." He doesn`t say how he could possibly have received and
millions of testimonials, investigated a thousand cases of alleged
cures, or determined that patients with multiple sclerosis were
by coral calcium. Proper evaluation of claimed cancer cures would
(a)checking whether the patient had a biopsy,
(b) checking whether or not the patient had standard treatment,
(c) checking whether the patient was actually cancer-free,
(d) following the patient`s course for severalyears,
(e) and compiling detailed statistics.
Do you think that Barefoot has done any of these things? The Calcium
Factor contains seven brief testimonials from cancer patients, but
none contains enough detail either to
Identify any of the people or to evaluate what they report. Multiple
testimonials are even more difficult to verify because the disease
normally has ups and downs. Controlled studies are needed to
a method is effective.
j.. All cultures in which people live very long, all the people
consume100,000 milligrams of calcium.
That would be enough to cause kidney stones,calcium deposits
throughout the body, and death within a short period of time . The
Institute of Medicine recommends taking no more than 2,500 milligrams
a day . Taking twice that amount would be risky .
Taking 40 times that amount would be insane.
k.. The Calcium Factor contains hundreds of scientific references
that back up what it says.
If it does, they are well hidden. I found fewer than100 citations,
many of which were to magazine articles and quaky books.
The normal way to report journal references is to list the author,
journal, volume, page numbers, and year of publication. Although I
carefully, I only found a few that were specified in this way, and
written by authors I know to be untrustworthy. A few passages gave
information to locate the article to which they referred, and some
standard medical textbooks. However, many of these were outdated,
some were quoted out of context, and none appears to support any of
claims I have challenged in this article.
l.. About 600 years ago, people in Okinawa began putting coral
calcium in their food and discovered that they gradually got
100 years later, Spanish explorers came and found virtually no
disease. So they
filled up their shipholds and brought it to Spain, where they
and found not only calcium but a perfect balance of magnesium and 70
trace metals and other minerals.
That`s an amazing story, considering the fact that 500 years ago the
nature and existence of trace minerals was unknown.
m.. Okinawans do not get cancer.
This is easy to explode by doing a Medline search for articles about
cancer that mention Okinawa in their title. I found at least ten that
describe the incidence of various
n.. The calcium in coral calcium is far more absorbable (100%) than
the calcium in milk (17%) , calcium citrate products (10%) and antacid
Experts interviewed by the Washington Post state that pure
calcium carbonate products are 30-35% absorbable .
In 2003, a newer Barefoot/Trudeau infomercial ("The Debbie & Kevin
Show") highlighted and misrepresented the JAMA calcium study and
that coral calcium had cured many cases of terminal cancer.
Barefoot`s ideas and various coral calcium products have also been
promoted by several multilevel companies, one of which, in 1999, was
by the FDA to stop making health claims that related its products to
pressure, arthritic conditions, heart disease, or digestive reflux
Other regulatory actions are listed below.
Thousands of Web sites refer to Barefoot as "Dr. Robert Barefoot" or
Robert Barefoot, Ph.D. However, he is not a medical doctor and does
A Ph.D. degree. In 1999, Barefoot was not permitted to testify as an
expert in a case in which the Maryland Attorney General stopped the
of T-Up (an aloe vera concentrate) and cesium chloride for the
cancer and AIDS. The case was extremely serious because the regimen
killed several of its users. During hearings in the case, the
sought to have Barefoot testify that cesium was effective. The
that Barefoot submitted described his formal education after high
as "1964 Northern Alberta Institute of Technology, Chemistry"
Graduated with Honors, Chemical Research Technology." 
This means that his highest educational credential is a diploma (not
a university degree) that reflects only three years of coursework.
The presiding Administrative Law
Judge noted that Barefoot had formal training and experience in
chemistry but had not had any professionally supported or supervised
done any professionally recognized research in organic chemistry and
biochemistry in the human body. Although Barefoot described having
with doctors and patients about using cesium for treating cancer, the
judge concluded that "this experience and study was not scientific."
2000, a civil court judge ordered the defendants to pay millions of
in restitution and $3.7 million in civil penalties [13,14]. In 2001,
Maryland Court of Special Appeals upheld this decision in a ruling
that explained why Barefoot`s exclusion had been justified . One
the defendants received a 46-month prison sentence in a parallel
Web sites also describe Barefoot as a "world-renowned chemist." His
curriculum vitae states that between 1968 and 1972 he published six
scientific research papers on analytical chemistry and diagenesis.
Diagenesis refers to the changes that occur in sediments as they are
buried under other sediments. This appears to have some relevance to
formation of limestone, but it certainly has nothing to do with human
or human health. Searching Medline, which is the most comprehensive
of medically-related journals, I located no articles with Barefoot
listed as author. His curriculum vitae states that he has patented an
ore-extraction process and headed two companies that serviced the
industry. His marketing activities have attracted considerable
attention, but I
doubt that he deserves to be called a "renowned chemist."
Carl J. Reich, M.D., who co-authored The Calcium Factor, is a
Canadian physician whose license was canceled in 1983. According to
Reich had a thriving practice in Calgary, Canada, but the Alberta
Of Physicians and Surgeons considered his practices "potentially
dangerous." [2:92] The College`s public report states:
A hearing was held before a panel of three peers on March 4, 1986.
The allegations were:
1.. Between the 3rd day of June, A.D., 1982 and the 3rd day of
December, A.D., 1982 provided treatment to patients contrary to the
The Council of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Province
Alberta dated the 3rd day of June, A.D. 1982.
2.. Demonstrate a lack of skill and judgment in the practice of
medicine in accordance with an assessment of his medical practice as
on December 13, 1983, by an Assessment Committee appointed by the
College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Province of Alberta.
On March 20, 1986 the Council of the College of Physicians and
Surgeons of the Province of Alberta advised Dr. C.J. Reich that his
name was to
be struck from the Register of the College of Physicians and Surgeons
the Province of Alberta.
Kevin Trudeau, who hosts Barefoot`s infomercials, has been the object
Of FTC regulatory action for false advertising. In 1998, in
six infomercials that he developed, Trudeau signed a consent
(a) pay $500,000 in consumer redress,
(b) be barred from making false claims for products in the future,
and (c) establish a $500,000 escrow account or performance bond to
assure compliance . In the infomercials, Trudeau acts skeptical
by questioning why listeners should believe various
claims that the overwhelming majority of medical doctors would
Barefoot`s answer is simple (and incorrect). Doctors, he says, are
too busy to
read journals and get their information from drug companies; and drug
companies don`t want them to know that coral calcium is more
their drugs. (Doctors actually get most of their information from
continuing education courses, and conversations with colleagues, not
from drug companies.)
During the early 1990s, according to a report in the Wall Street
Journal, Trudeau served nearly two years in prison. In 1990, he pled
larceny in a Cambridge, Massachusetts, state court in connection with
$80,000 in worthless checks he had deposited at a bank. The
sentencing memorandum said that he had posed as a doctor to increase
credibility with bank officials. In 1991, he pled guilty to credit-
card fraud in
Boston federal district court. Among his misdeeds in the federal
misappropriated for his own use the credit-card numbers of customers
of the memory-improvement courses that he offered at the time .
The ostensible purpose of the infomercial is to sell The Calcium
Factor and Death By Diet. The infomercial states that listeners can
special price by calling a toll-free number. I assume that the
product is not
mentioned on the program because the cancer claim would make Barefoot
sitting ducks for FDA prosecution. But by selling the book, they may
protected by freedom of the press as long as the contents of the book
accurately described. When I called the number to get the price of
the books, I
learned that the price was $37.97 plus $7.99 for shipping, a total of
The list prices on Amazon Books total $35.90, but buyers of both pay
shipping charge, and used and nearly new copies are available for
less. I also
found a coral calcium supplier who sells both books for $27.40
The monthly cost of coral calcium varies with the brand, price
charged by the retailer, and the number of capsules taken per day.
recommends determining the daily dosage by testing the pH of your
saliva (a test
that is not valid for determining calcium needs).The Calcium Factor
that only 3 are needed for people in the "healthy range" but 6 or 9
needed for people who are ill or are developing an illness [2:119].
most people will test alkaline (7.2 to 7.4), the most likely dosage
be 3 per day.
During "A Closer Look," Trudeau states that callers to a toll-free
number who mention the program`s name can take advantage of "special
arrangements" he makes with all of his program`s guests. When I
toll-free number, the operator answered "The Calcium Factor." When I
whether this was a regular business, he said that it was just an
center. When I asked who owned it, he first said he didn`t know and
their names were "Tom" and "Steve." When I asked about the "special
I was told that the books, three videotapes, and three audiotapes
available free as part of a package that includes ten 90-capsule
"Coral Calcium Daily" for $299.99 plus $19.98 shipping ($32 per
that buyers of the package can get additional bottles for life for
that much. The product contains calcium carbonate, 3 other minerals,
vitamins A, C, D, and E. The operator told me that the recommended
dosage is 3 capsules per day, which would make the monthly cost about
$32 for the
first ten months and about half that much thereafter. I don`t know
special about the arrangement, but I found what looks like the same
deal on a
Web site for $50 less. Bob Barefoot`s Coral Calcium Supreme, the
promoted by the Debbie & Kevin infomercial, has a similar range of
The "Barefoot Calcium Plus" formula, which appears to be a major
competitor, contains the same ingredients plus seven more minerals.
Calcium Supplement Center sells twelve 90-capsule bottles for $263.40
$17.70 for shipping, which would total about $23 per month. Neither
rationally formulated. Purified calcium carbonate tablets, which
should be chewed to enhance absorption, can be obtained in drugstores
retail outlets for about $2 per month. Vitamin D can be important,
especially for people who have minimal exposure to sunlight. However,
need supplementary vitamin D can get it combined with calcium
no additional cost. The other nutrients in these products are readily
available in more complete multivitamin/multimineral products that
cost more than $2 per month .
Using an inexpensive calcium supplement may also be safer. Laboratory
analyses have shown that some calcium supplements contain significant
amounts of lead and other heavy metals . The UC Berkeley Wellness
Letter has warned:
There has been little or no good research on coral as a source of
or as a treatment for disease. But that doesn`t stop the marketers
from making their claims, since dietary supplements are virtually
You have no idea what`s really in the bottle or if the stuff is safe.
Historically, calcium supplements haven`t always been safe: years ago
calcium carbonate from bone meal or oyster shells, for instance, was
used in some supplements -- but was later found to contain high
lead. Since then the government and manufacturers took action to
lead levels in existing calcium supplements. But new supplements can
The Wellness Letter statement turned out to be prophetic. In June
2003, ConsumerLab reported that Bob Barefoot`s Coral Calcium Supreme
contains 2.5 micrograms of lead per gram of calcium . This might
not pose a
physical threat (except, perhaps, to a developing child when taken by
who is pregnant or breastfeeding). However, there is no logical
the product when many other calcium supplements have a lower lead
California requires that products exceeding the "no significant risk
level" of 1.5 micrograms of lead provide a warning label -- which
Barefoot`s product does not.
The outrageous nature of Barefoot`s claims has triggered regulatory
action here and abroad. In June 2003, the United Kingdom`s
Television Commission (ITC) announced that it had levied a £60,000
fine on the
television shopping channel, Shop America (a subsidiary of Trustar
Global Media) for several breaches of the ITC`s Advertising Code. The
offense was an ad which claimed that Bob Barefoot`s Coral Calcium
could help reverse cancer and other serious diseases and could
including babies. The penalty also covered misleading ads for the
Fresh Start diet plan and a golfing product . One week later, the
Federal Trade Commission charged Barefoot, Trudeau, Shop America
Deonna Enterprises with making unsubstantiated claims that "go far
existing scientific evidence regarding the recognized health benefits
calcium." The FTC filed suit in Chicago federal court abd quickly
obtained a temporary restraining order and an asset freeze. In
FTC and FDA sent warnings to many Web site operators who are making
claims  and U.S. Marshals seized $2.6 million worth of Coral
Supreme . In a separate action, the FTC alleged that Trudeau
violated the 1998
FTC order prohibiting him from making unsubstantiated claims about the
benefits, performance, or efficacy of any product. The FTC alleges
violated the order by making false and unsubstantiated claims about
Coral Calcium Supreme and Biotape (a purported pain-relief product
Trudeau promotes through a separate infomercial). In this action, the
seeking a finding of contempt, monetary relief, and other injunctive
as well as a temporary restraining order that would prohibit Trudeau
making the challenged claims, and would freeze his assets .
developer, Darrell Stoddard, claims that pain is caused by blockage
force" ("chi") and that the tape is conductive mylar that "connects
broken circuits."  Users are instructed place a strip of Biotape
directly on the parts of their body where they feel pain.
In January 2004, shortly before a trial would otherwise taken place,
the FTC announced that Barefoot had agreed to a permanent injunction
which he, Deonna Enterprises, Inc., and Karbo Enterprises, Inc., are:
a.. Prohibited from making unsubstantiated claims that:
a.. "Coral Calcium Supreme" or any other coral calcium product
treator cure cancer, multiple sclerosis, heart disease, high blood
pressure, and other serious diseases.
b.. The body absorbs coral calcium better than other calcium
supplements in the market.
c.. A daily serving size of such a product provides the same
amount of bioavailable calcium as two gallons of milk.
d.. Scientific research published in JAMA and elsewhere proves
thatcalcium supplements are able to reverse or cure cancer in the
b.. Prohibited from making unsubstantiated claims about the health
benefits, performance, or efficacy for any dietary supplement, food,
drug, cosmetic, device, or service.
c.. Required to recall any product packaging that makes the
d.. Required to notify resellers and distributors about the FTC
The court order also permits the FTC to recover all royalties owed to
Barefoot in connection with the Coral Calcium Supreme infomercial
The Bottom Line
Calcium intake is an important factor in bone health and may play
some role in the prevention of colon cancer. Barefoot has embellished
simple facts to create an elaborate scheme to promote his
coral calcium products. His current video is the most outrageous
infomercial I have ever seen. Your best bet is to completely ignore
what he says
and follow a medically approved program that includes adequate
and other measures for preventing osteoporosis. The National Academy
Sciences advises Americans and Canadians at risk for osteoporosis to
between 1,000 and 1,300 milligrams of calcium per day . This can
with dairy products, supplements, or both. Readily absorbable
need not cost more than a few cents a day.
Coral calcium products are a waste of money, and some are
irrationally formulated. For professional advice on calcium intake,
registered dietitian (R.D.) or physician to help you. Meanwhile, if
purchased a coral calcium product and would like to share your
it with us, please send me an e-mail message.
For Additional Information
a.. Acid/Alkaline Theory of Disease is Nonsense
b.. Robert Barefoot`s Curriculum Vitae
c.. Council for Responsible Nutrition complaint to the FDA
d.. Investigative Report by Terry Dunkle
e.. Transcript of "A Closer Look"
f.. Transcript of "The Debbie & Kevin Show"
I`ve never taken coral calcium, but I am a geologist with
Extensive experience with calcium carbonate in the various forms. We
Thousands of tons of 97-plus percent pure limestone (CaCO3) for use
as a feed
additive for livestock and poultry at $0.0075 per pound. I would have
filled the capsules by hand at the price the coral calcium people get.
High-quality feed additive grade limestone gets a high of $20/ton
pharmaceutical pure precipitated calcium carbonate is probably in the
price. By my rough estimate, "coral calcium" gets around $128,000 per
1.. "A Closer Look" and "The Debbie & Kevin Show," both televised
in 2002 and 2003.
2.. Barefoot RR, Reich CS. The Calcium Factor: The Scientific
Secret of Health and Youth 5th edition. Southeastern, PA: Triad
3.. Barefoot RR. Death By Calcium, 4th Edition. Southeastern, PA:
Triad Marketing, 2002.
4.. Barefoot RR. Barefoot on Coral Calcium: An Elixir of Life.
Newark, NJ: Wellness Publishing, 2001.
5.. Robert R. Barefoot Coral Calcium Interview. Audiotape
transcript .Coral Calcium Supplement Center Web site, accessed Fed 1,
6.. Mirkin G. Acid/alkaline theory of disease is nonsense.
Quackwatch, Fed 6, 2003.
7.. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary
Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference
Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington,
1997, National Academy Press.
8.. Holt PR and others. Modulation of abnormal colonic epithelial
cell proliferation and differentiation by low-fat dairy foods: a
randomized controlled trial. JAMA 280:1074-1079, 1998.
9.. Scofield HR. Milk-alkali syndrome. eMedicine Web site, revised
Fed 28, 2002.
10.. Packer-Tursman J. From the depths: Many experts don`t swallow
extraordinary claims for calcium supplements derived from sea coral.
Washington Post May 20, 2003.
11.. Setterberg SM. Warning letter to Gregg Barna, CEO of Health
Thru Nutrition (d.b.a. Health Technologies Network (HTN), Aug 20,
12.. Barefoot, RR. Curriculum vitae. Undated, circa 1999.
13.. Curran orders aloe company to stop "miracle cure" claims and
to pay restitution and $3.7 million in civil penalties. Maryland
General news release, May 10, 2000.
14.. Court affirms order requiring aloe company to cease miracle
cure claims, pay restitution & $3.7 million penalty. Maryland
General news release, April 11, 2002
15.. Rodowsky J. Opinion in T-Up, Inc, et al. v. Consumer
Protection Division, Office of the Attorney General. In the Court of
Appeals of Maryland, No. 0064, September Term, 2001.
16.. Willis L. Man gets term of 46 months in aloe vera case:
Concoction distributed as a treatment for cancer. Baltimore Sun, Dec
17.. Infomercial marketers settle various charges: Ad claims for
"Hair Farming," "Mega Memory System," "Addiction Breaking
Reading," "Eden`s Secret," and "Mega Reading" were deceptive. FTC
news release, Jan 13, 1998.
18.. Barrett S. Dietary Supplements: Appropriate Use. Quackwatch,
revised May 20, 2002.
19.. Emshwiller JR. Nutrition for Life`s top recruiter has a
criminal past despite convictions, Trudeau gets new distributors to
fork out the
cash. The Wall Street Journal, Jan 19, 1996.
20.. Ross EA and others. Lead content of calcium supplements. JAMA
21.. How to sell a 5¢ supplement for $1. UC Berkeley Wellness
Letter, Fed 2003.
22.. Product review: Calcium. ConsumerLab, accessed June 10, 2003.
23.. ITC imposes £60,000 financial penalty on Shop America. ITC
news release June 2, 2003.
24.. FTC charges marketers of Coral Calcium Supreme dietary
supplement and a pain-relief product with making false and
FTC news release, June 10, 2003.
25.. FDA Dietary Supplement Enforcement Report, July 2003.
26.. Stoddard DJ. Pain healed "immediately" (Severe, chronic,
intractable pain, not masked or managed, but healed) by applying a
conductive, patented, polymer membrane. Pain Research Institute Web
accessed June13, 2003.
27.. Marketers of coral calcium product are prohibited from making
disease treatment and cure claims in advertising. FTC news release,
28.. Gettleman G. Stipulated final order for permanent injunction
and settlement of claims for monetary relief as to defendants Robert
Barefoot, Deonna Enterprises, Inc. and Karbo Enterprises, Inc., U.S.
Court, Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division, Civ. No. 03-C-
3904. Quackwatch Home Page
This article was revised on January 25, 2004.
Скажите, что собой представляют кораллы? И почему на дне океана они НЕ растворяются, коль такие "усвояемые"??? Ионная форма - это хорошо, но что имеют в виду под ионной формой? Ведь в виде ионов кальций может быть только в растворе. Если это раствор солей кальция, то вопрос с том, насколько это расствор свежий? Иначе он должен содержать огромное количество презервативов и стабилизаторов. Если это порошок, важно знать, насколько он расворяется хорошо, переходя в ионную форму, и какое количество воды достаточно, чтобы создать расствор, близкий к изотоноческому, для лучшего всасывания ионов кальция. Если на эти вопросы есть ответы в аннотации данного препарата, тогда можете принимать его.
Дополнительная информация прилагается.
678. Какова роль кальция в обмене веществ организма человека?
Кальций играет очень важную роль в жизни человека - 99% кальция находится в костной ткани. Кальций, находящийся во внеклеточной жидкости, необходим для многих функций организма, и его содержание здесь в крови весьма стабильно. У здорового взрослого человека концентрация кальция в плазме колеб¬лется в пределах 88—104 мг/л (2,2—2,6 мМ). Кальций участвует в регуляции кровяного давления, процессах сворачиваемости крови, электрической проводимости сигналов по нервным волокнам, сокращениях мышц. Каждый день взрослый человек теряет от 400 до 500 мг кальция, поэтому пополнение этого важного микроэлемента является залогом здоровья. Около 75% населения Северной Америки испытывают дефицит кальция. Такие же показатели характерны для стран Европы, не смотря на высокий социально-экономический уровень жизни в этих странах. Кальций всасывается в верхних отделах тонкого кишечника, поэтому у людей с заболеваниями ЖКТ может наблюдаться нехватка кальция в организме.
679. Какие формы кальция наиболее оптимальны для лучшего усвоения?
Для того чтобы усвоиться организмом, кальций должен быть в ионной форме. Наиболее часто кальций в добавках встречается в виде солей: карбонат, глюконат, лактат, фосфат и цитрат. Таблетированные формы требуют большое количество желудочного сока для их размягчения, количество которого у старших людей уменьшено. Поэтому усвояемость таблетированных форм кальция очень низкая. Порошкообразные формы кальция, которые растворяют в определенном количестве воды, являются более приемлемыми добавками с лучшей усвояемостью этого минерала. С пищей или таблетированными добавками усваивается около 250-300 мг кальция. Ученые обнаружили, что эффективность всасывания в кишечнике нахо¬дится в обратной зависимости от содержания кальция в диете, и для лучшего усвоения кальция одноразовая доза не должна превышать 500 мг, поэтому прием кальция желательно разделить на 2-4 раза в день. При одноразовом приеме 1500 мг кальция усваивается только 30% содержимого. Не все содержащиеся в пище формы кальция всасываются одинаково; имеет зна¬чение состав соли, в которой присутствует кальций. Лучше всего усваиваются хлорид и карбонат кальция, но некоторые женщины не усваивают эти виды ионов кальция, поэтому комбинация нескольких видов ионов кальция в добавках поможет таким женщинам получить необходимое суточное количество кальция. Поскольку в обмене кальция принимают участие ряд других микроэлементов и витаминов, желательно воспользоваться готовыми формулами, содержащими не только кальций, но и магний, витамин Д, С, фтор, бор в соответствующей пропорции.